Electricity is the most used energy in our daily life, providing support to the industry as well as well-being in many daily activities. But it also causes significant risks that must be known and anticipated. The passage of electrical current through the human body can have serious health consequences, as it can cause serious burns and even death from asphyxia or cardiac arrest.
Direct contact: It is the one that occurs with the active parts of the installation, which are usually under electrical tension.
- The longer the contact duration, the greater the risk.
- The higher the current, the higher the risk.
Indirect contact: It is the one that occurs with masses accidentally put in tension.
Control measures to reduce direct contacts
- Keep cables and connections away from work places and passageways
- Interpose obstacles.
- Cover the live parts with insulating material.
- Use voltages lower than 25 volts.
Control measures to reduce indirect contacts
- Grounding: When indirect electrical contact occurs, grounding diverts a large part of the electrical current that would otherwise pass through the worker’s body.
- The differential switch: The differential switch is a highly precise device that cuts the current almost at the same time as a deviation current occurs.
- Any electrical installation, conductor or cable must be considered connected and under tension.
- Before working on them, the absence of voltage must be checked with suitable equipment.
- Only carry out electrical work with trained and authorized personnel. The repair and modification of electrical installations and equipment is solely and exclusively the responsibility of qualified personnel in electrical installation and / or maintenance.
- The person in charge of a work or home sector must call on these experts in the event of breakdowns or new installations.
- The person in charge must pay attention to abnormal heating in motors, cables, cabinets and equipment, taking action for their immediate review.
- In the use of a home appliance or appliance, when you notice tickling or the slightest spark, you should proceed to its immediate disconnection and subsequent notification.
- When working with machines or tools powered by electricity, it is necessary to insulate yourself using certified personal protection equipment and means.
- All electrical equipment, tools, transformers or other equipment with a voltage higher than the safety one (24 volts) or that lacks dielectric characteristics of double insulation, will be bonded or connected to earth and in any case will have protection with a differential switch.
- The correct functioning of the protections must be checked periodically.
- Do not use extension cables that do not have a protective conductor for powering grounded receivers.
- All electrical power cables connected to a socket must be fitted with a standard connector.
- Power tools should be unplugged at the end of use or during work break.
- It will be strictly forbidden to disconnect machines, tools, or any electrical equipment by pulling the cable. It should always be disconnected by taking the plug-connector plug and pulling it. In the industrial case, you must have fixed cut-off keys.
- Special attention should be paid to electricity if working in damp areas. In wet or metallic places, only portable electrical devices at low safety voltages should be used.
- Do not play tricks with electricity.
- In the case of an electrified person, do not touch them directly.
Precautions to check
- Prevent access to live parts by keeping the covering covers closed, if possible, with a key, which must be kept by the responsible person.
- The power switches are accessible and it is known to use them in an emergency.
- Remove any device that is suspected of having a problem from use and place it in a safe place with a “DO NOT USE” label, awaiting inspection by competent personnel.
- Disconnect tools and equipment from the mains before cleaning, adjusting or maintaining them.
Five golden rules
When working on electrical installations always remember:Cut off all sources of tension.
- Lock the cutting devices.
- Check the absence of voltage.
- Ground and short-circuit all possible sources of voltage.
- Delimit and mark the work area.
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