Training of specialists with higher medical and pharmaceutical education in the Russian Federation (university medical education) is carried out in 47 medical universities, as well as at medical faculties of state universities. The total output of doctors and pharmacists is about 25,000 per year. The planning of the number of students is carried out by the Ministry of Health and Social Development of Russia in conjunction with the territorial health authorities.
The system of advanced training for doctors (postgraduate medical education) is represented by seven institutions of postgraduate education, faculties of advanced training for doctors at medical universities, as well as information and internship courses on the basis of research institutes and large institutions of practical health care.
The work on specialization and improvement of doctors is regulated by the Ministry of Health and Social Development of the Russian Federation (Ministry of Health and Social Development of the Russian Federation) and the Federal Agency for Health Care (Roszdrav). The head institution is the Russian Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education (RMAPO).
In our country, uniform requirements have been established for the organization of all types of postgraduate education, uniform periods for the frequency and duration of training. Unified (standard) educational programs are used, a unified procedure for testing knowledge and a single sample of documents on the assignment of qualifications and on the improvement of doctors have been approved.
There are the following stages of postgraduate training of doctors (organized forms of education):
1. Specialization – passing an internship or residency in a broad specialty (primary specialization), and then in a narrower specialty (secondary specialization).
2. Improvement – further improvement of professional knowledge and skills:
General improvement – advanced training in all sections of the specialty (according to the existing legislative framework, advanced training of specialists should be carried out at least once every 5 years)
? Thematic improvement – in selected sections of the specialty or topical issues;
? Courses of information or internships on the basis of research institutes and large institutions of practical health care.
The system of the Ministry of Health and Social Development of Russia employs 607.7 thousand doctors. Every year over 180 thousand doctors have the opportunity to improve their qualifications free of charge.
In the course of professional activity, any doctor can acquire a new specialty provided for by the nomenclature of specialties approved by the Ministry of Health and Social Development of Russia. For this, it is necessary to undergo professional retraining in the prescribed manner.
Foreign experience of continuing medical education
Postgraduate medical education in developed countries is carried out within the framework of the program, which is called so: continuous medical education (CME) and continuous professional development (CPD). The peculiarity of CME / CPD is that training is carried out not under the supervision of a teacher, but independently.
After completing the training of a doctor in residency or residency, the process of postgraduate education begins, which lasts a whole life. In order to keep abreast of new advances in medicine, doctors regularly study modern medical literature, take medical education courses, attend medical conferences, etc. Many professional journals and specialized medical websites publish dedicated sections (CMEs) with educational materials. After mastering the topics and answering the control questions, you can get a “credit” and the corresponding certificate.
Hospitals, licensing boards and professional medical societies require doctors to report their participation in various types of postgraduate education.